CARICHE POLITICHE : UFFICI INTRINSECI

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gonfalonieri di Giustizia e Priori delle Arti nel periodo 1282 1532 ……: Elenchi dei Gonfalonieri di Giustizia e dei Priori delle Arti

Gonfalonieri di Compagnia e Buonuomini  ………………………………….: Elenchi dei Gonfalonieri di compagnia e dei Buonuomini

Senatori del Ducato e del Granducato di Toscana  ………………………. : Elenchi dei Senatori del Ducato poi Granducato di Toscana

 

Consoli delle Arti nel periodo 1282 1532………………………………….Elenchi dei Carnesecchi Consoli delle Arti 

Otto di Guardia e di Balia  ……………………………………………: Otto di Guardia e di Balia tra i Carnesecchi ( contributo dr Paolo Piccardi )

Buonuomini delle Stinche ……………………………Carnesecchi che hanno svolto la carica di "Buonuomini delle Stinche" ( contributo dr Paolo Piccardi )

 

 

 

Un priorista cinquecentesco pubblicato dalla Orsini De Marzo ……………………………I Carnesecchi in un priorista a famiglie cinquecentesco

 

 

Bibliografia

Viti Paolo e Zaccaria Raffaella Maria

Archivio delle tratte

 

Raveggi Sergio

http://193.205.4.30/fileadmin/uploads/risorse/medievale/fonti_strumenti/raveggi_priori.doc

Il professor Raveggi elenca Priori e Gonfalonieri dalle origini fino al 1343

Vengono identificate le famiglie

 

Barbadoro Bernardino Consigli della Repubblica fiorentina (1301-1315)

In appendice : Priori e Gonfalonieri dal 15 febbraio 1301 al 15 febbraio 1315

Dei Priori e dei Gonfalonieri vengono identificate le famiglie come da "Priorista" Mariani

 

Marchionne di Coppo Stefani

Cronaca Fiorentina

Firenze Libri : memorie italiane studi e testi collana diretta da Giovanni Cherubini ,Giuliano Pinto, Andrea Zorzi

Priori e Gonfalonieri dalle origini all’aprile 1386

+

La cronaca fiorentina compare anche nelle "Delizie degli eruditi toscani"

http://www.carnesecchi.eu/libri.htm

 

 

 

Diario di anonimo fiorentino (1382-1401 )

Alle bocche della Piazza a cura di Anthony Molho e Franek Sznura Leo Olschki editore

 

 

Pagolo di Matteo Petriboni

Matteo di Borgo Rinaldi

Priorista ( 1407-1459 )

Gabriella Battista e Jacqueline Gutwirth

Istituto nazionale di studi sul rinascimento

 

 

 

Edited by David Herlihy, R. Burr Litchfield, Anthony Molho and Roberto Barducci

FLORENTINE RENAISSANCE RESOURCES: Online Tratte of Office Holders 1282-1532

http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/tratte/

 

 

 

 

 

storiaaristocraziafiorentina

 

 

Ruolo politico dei Carnesecchi di Firenze : uffici estrinseci

 

 

COSTANTINOPOLI

 

 

Antonio Carnesecchi anno 1500 Emino della Nazione fiorentina a Costantinopoli

Andrea di Paolo di Simone 1501-1504 Emino della Nazione fiorentina a Costantinopoli

 

A questa informazione su Antonio emino nel 1500 non ho trovato conferma altrove

 

 

Cortesia di Francesco Bini--palazzo vicariale di Certaldo

 

Il motto nel cartiglio : Dio resiste ai superbi....( Guido Buldrini )

 

 

 

 

 

" Dominio e patronato: Lorenzo dei Medici e la Toscana nel Quattrocento" di PATRIZIA SALVADORI 

 

La giustizia, era una figura consueta nella vita politica delle citta’ e dei centri maggiori della Toscana , anche prima della dominazione fiorentina . Ma mentre nel periodo precedente il Podesta’ veniva scelto direttamente dalle Magistrature locali , che attingevano a un nucleo di professionisti itineranti , provenienti anche da altri Stati italiani, con la dominazione di Firenze questi ufficiali vennero definitivamente sostituiti da cittadini fiorentini , sprovvisti per lo piu’ di un adeguata preparazione giuridica e appartenenti in buona misura al ristretto nucleo di famiglie che componevano il ceto dirigente urbano (6)

La figura del Rettore si trovava pertanto a operare in quel dualismo di poteri che caratterizzava le formazioni territoriali del Quattrocento, poiche’ l’ufficiale estrinseco doveva da un lato rappresentare il potere centrale nelle zone del dominio , e dall’altro tutelare , secondo l’antica tradizione comunale, gli interessi delle citta’ e dei paesi nei quali ricopriva l’incarico per un breve lasso di tempo.(7)

 

(4) I Salari potevano variare da una somma di 4000 lire al semestre per le cariche di Capitano e Podesta di Pisa ( che avevano al seguito una quarantina di persone ) fino alla somma di 250 lire per le podesterie piu’ piccole; l’importo del salario era stabilito dalla Dominante. ANDREA ZORZI Giusdicenti e operatori pg 520

(6) Sebbene a cavallo tra il XIV e il XV secolo si assista ad un ampliamento del numero complessivo delle famiglie ammesse a tali uffici , di fatto queste cariche soprattutto quelle piu’ importanti , erano concentrate in un ristretto numero di casati . Circa venti famiglie ricoprirono in modo stabile un nutrito numero di incarichi e solo quattro di esse (Rucellai , Carnesecchi , Corsini , Corbinelli ) fecero parte in modo continuativo del vertice. ANDREA ZORZI Giusdicenti e operatori pg 531

 

 

"La trasformazione di un quadro politico. Ricerca su politica e giustizia…." di ANDREA ZORZI

Ne’ contribuirono a migliorare il livello medio di qualita’ dell’esercizio delle giurisdicenze la marginalizzazione delle quote di uffici spettanti agli artigiani e ai membri delle corporazioni minori che nel giro di pochi decenni tra XIV e XV secolo furono ridotte da 1/3 del totale degli uffici estrinseci a ¼ delle sole podesterie minori , in conseguenza della concentrazione del potere , nella seconda meta’ del quattrocento , per esempio su circa 250 gruppi familiari ammessi agli uffici ,il 20% occupo’ mediamente il 46% del totale degli incarichi, con un vertice del 5% di famiglie ( tra le quali sempre presenti Rucellai , Carnesecchi , Corsini , Corbinelli ) che da solo ne copri in media il 18%………………

 

 

Vicari e Podesta'   : Vicari e Podesta'

Vicari e Podesta'   : Vicari e podesta'

Vicari e Podesta   : Vicari e Podesta'

Capitani di Giustizia di Castrocaro    Capitani di Giustizia di Castrocaro : elenco dal 1403 al 1500 : Contributo del dr Cristiano Verna

Podesta di Fiesole    Carnesecchi Podesta' a Fiesole ..……………….Contributo di Roberto Segnini

Vicari e Podesta'    Podesta' e Vicari

Vicari e Podesta'  I Vicari/Podesta di Lari : Elenchi

Vicari e Podesta'  I Vicari/Podesta di San Miniato al Tedesco : Elenchi

Vicari e Podesta'  I Vicari/Podesta di San Miniato al Tedesco : Elenchi a pg 219-220

Vicari e Podesta'  I Vicari/Podesta di Poppi : Elenchi

Vicari e Podesta'  I Vicari/Podesta di Pescia : Elenchi

Governatori e Capitani  Livorno : Elenchi ………………………….per la cortesia della dottoressa Serafina Bueti e del personale ASLi

Vicari e Podesta'  I Vicari del Valdarno superiore : Elenchi ………………………………..contributo del conte Massimo Cavalloni

Vicari e Podesta'  Carnesecchi Vicari del Valdarno superiore : Elenchi…………………..contributo del conte Massimo Cavalloni

 

Vicari e Podesta'  Carnesecchi ufficiali nella Valdichiana: …………………..contributo del dr Angelo Gravano - Bardelli

 

missive degli Otto di Pratica ...............Carnesecchi nominati nelle missive degli Otto di Pratica

un affresco nel palazzo dei Vicari di Scarperia ...............tratto dal sito www.piccoligrandimusei.it/VicariOpere.phtml

Vicari di Vicopisano ...............Carnesecchi vicari a Vicopisano

Vicari e Podesta'   : Carmignano

Vicari e Podesta'   : Barga

 

 

Annali e Memorie dell' Antica, e Nobile Città di S. Sepolcro Intorno alla ...

Di Pietro Farulli

http://books.google.it/books?id=dAZAAAAAcAAJ&pg=PT2&dq=carnefecchi+sepolcro&hl=it&ei=V37BTurQDcP2sgaS4di-Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&sqi=2&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false

 

Le vite d'uomini illustri fiorentini

Di Filippo Villani,Giammaria Mazzuchelli (conte),Alessandro Goracci

http://books.google.it/books?id=t9TQAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA260&dq=carnesecchi+gasparo&hl=it&ei=JX_BTpmDDo6xhAeG28SeBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=carnesecchi%20gasparo&f=false

 

 

Gonfalonieri di San Sepolcro …………………………………………………… … Gonfalonieri di San Sepolcro ( Arezzo )

Carnesecchi Gonfalonieri a San sepolcro …………Francesco di Gasparo Carnesecchi Gonfaloniere di San Sepolcro (probabilmente Caneschi)

 

 

 

xxxx

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Castello di Poppi

 

 

particolare Castello di Poppi : Giovanni di Luca Carnesecchi

 

 

Da Wikipedia per Francesco Bini : stemma dei Carnesecchi sul palazzo del Podesta' a Galluzzo (Opera del Della Robbia)

 

 

 

Ostina --antica fattoria di Ostina

 

 

 

Stemma a Colle val d'Elsa di Paolo di Berto di Zanobi ( attenzione non Paolo di Berto di Grazino )

particolare _ dalla foto di Francesco Bini.

 

 

 

 

wikipedia: palazzo del vicario a Pescia : stemma all'esterno-----by Francesco Bini

 

per la foggia antica pare essere lo stemma di Zanobi di Berto di Grazino Carnesecchi

 

infatti a Pescia :

anno 1384 Podesta' Zanobi di Berto di Grazino Carnesecchi

anno 1402 Vicario Zanobi di Berto di Grazino Carnesecchi

anno 1473 Vicario Piero di Simone di Paolo Carnesecchi

anno 1509 Vicario Bernardo di Francesco di Berto Carnesecchi

anno 1520 Vicario Simone di Piero di Simone Carnesecchi

anno 1521 Vicario Bernardo di Andrea di Bernardo Carnesecchi

anno 1528 Vicario Bartolomeo di Piero di Simone Carnesecchi

anno 1613 Vicario annuale Pierfrancesco del sen Cristofano Carnesecchi

anno 1630 Vicario annuale Giovanbattista di Zanobi del sen Bartolomeo Carnesecchi

 

 

 

In Toscana si trovano ancora decine di stemmi Carnesecchi , vicari ,podesta .capitani ed anche di sepolture nelle chiese o ornamento di palazzi

Ne ho raccolto una buona parte in questa pagina

 

Targhe , lapidi , stemmi   ………………… .Targhe , lapidi , stemmi in Toscana

 

 

Targhe , lapidi , stemmi   ………………… una questione interessante : stemmi matrimoniali

 

 

 

Da notare che lo stemma dei Carnesecchi fiorentini viene spesso dall'artista che scolpisce o dall'artista che affresca o dipinge o graficizza rappresentato come un troncato

In realta' come mostra la sepoltura di Pero di Durante Ricoveri e quella successiva di Luca di ser Filippo Carnesecchi in origine era un scudo azzurro con in punta un rocco d'oro e bandato con quattro bande ( poi divenute tre ) d'oro anch'esse

 

 

Lapide di Santa Maria Novella ….La lapide di Pero di Durante di Ricovero in Santa Maria Novella : Quasi un albero genealogico

 

 

 

DEGNA DI NOTA E' QUESTA CONCESSIONE ARALDICA DEL COMUNE DI SAN MINIATO AL TEDESCO

 

 

Notar quindi si vuole, come il Comune di Samminiato l' anno 1491 concedè a Matteo di Manetto Carnesecchi, e suoi figliuoli, e discendenti di poter portare 1' Arme stessa della Leonessa per in riguardo dei buoni portamenti fatti da esso Matteo stato Vicario sei mesi di detta Terra e dei meriti di Zanobi Carnesecchi stato Vicario ivi 1' anno 1410. e di quelli ancora di Manetto padre di esso Matteo statone Vicario 1' anno 1440.

 

by Domenico Maria Manni

Matteo , Manetto suo padre, Zanobi di Berto di Grazino suo nonno

 

Albero genealogico   ………Discendenza di Manetto di Zanobi di Berto Grazini

 

 

http://books.google.it/books?id=QI5YAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA103&dq=matteo+manetto+carnesecchi&hl=it&sa=X&ei=mQIHVI7MI87b7Aa1t4HADA&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=matteo%20manetto%20carnesecchi&f=false

 

Domenico Maria Manni, Osservazioni Istoriche sopra i sigilli antichi de' secoli bassi, Vol. XIV, Firenze, 1743, Sigillo n. IX, pp. 95-103.

 

 

Il Sigillo dei Signori Dodici del Comune di San Miniato

 

OSSERVAZIONI ISTORICHE SOPRA IL SIGILLO IX.

"Dal Sig. Abate Gio. Paolo Ombrosi, giovane di ottima aspettazione, sono stato favorito d'alcune reflessioni d'Amico suo sopra il Sigillo de' Dodici del Popolo della nobile Terra, ed ora Città, di S. Miniato, alle quali alcun'altra cosa di mio mi è paruto di dovere aggiungnere, come in appresso; il tutto per dar luce, e chiarezza al Sigillo stesso.

L'antica Repubblica di Samminiato faceva per Arme come fa anco di presente una Leonessa con stocco (un tipo di spada a lama lunga e sottile, adatta ai colpi di punta, n.d.r.), come si vede appunto nell'impresso sigillo.

In un altro Sigillo posseduto dal Sig. Canonico Innocenzio Buonamici di Prato la Leonessa sembra essere senza lo stocco, bensì coronata, avente attorno le parole SIGILLUM · IMPERIALIS · CASTRI SANCTI · MINIATIS.

Ciò premesso, chiaramente si vede, ch'esso non era Sigillo particolare d'alcun Magistrato, ma proprio del Comune, il qual era governato a vicenda, e secondo l'estrazioni, da dodici Persone, chiamati i dodici Difensori del Popolo, e dipoi vi aggiunsero CAPITAN PARTIS GUELFE.

Il governo di quella allora Repubblica fu or di Parte Guelfa, ed or di Ghibellina, secondo che l'una prevaleva all'altra, o che cos' richiedevano i reflessi politici: Comecchè Samminiato era residenza de' Vicari Imperiali, che vi aprirono il lor Tribunale fino al tempo d'Ottone I, come attestano i Bonincontri, Malespini, Boninsegni, Villani, Ammirati ec. E de fatto per esser così benemerito dell'Imperio, a principio inclinò il governo a Parte Ghibellina.

Del 1202. lo dice chiaramento il Bonincontri nel Lib. 4 de' suoi Annali.

Del 1240. attesta Giovanni Villani, che Federigo II. molti prigioni Guelfi mandò a Samminiato.

Cosa simile riferisce nel suo Viaggio il chiarissimo Sig. Giovanni Lami sotto l'anno 1249 di alcuni Fiorentini Guelfi da Federigo messi in progione in S. Miniato, ove i più morirono di miseria; e ciò coll'autorità degli Annali del Bonincontri.

E nel 1281 il medesimo Villani, poiché riceverono il Vicario Imperiale, che venne in Toscana in favore de' Ghibellini.

Nel 1320 i Samminiatesi erano uniti con Castruccio contro i Fiorentini; eccoli Ghibellini. Nel 1324 in lega co' Fiorentini contro Castruccio; ed eccoli Guelfi.

Contro la volontà dei Fiorentini si dettero all'Imperator Carlo IV da cui riceverono cortesie straordinarie, come racconta Matteo Villani nel Libro 4 Cap. 63 ed accettarono il Vicario Imperiale, che iusdicebat in tutta la Toscana, ed a lui, ed alla sua Curia si devolvevano le Cause d'appello anco criminali, come si riconosce dal fatto riferito dal medesimo Matteo Villani al Libro 5 Cap. 26 che quei tre Cittadini di Firenze, accusati di offesa maestà, benchè di essi noino sospetto cadesse nel petto dell'Imperatore, nondimeno convenne, che si appresentassero in giudicio a Samminiato, ove furono dichiarati non colpevoli.

In altri tempi non mi pare, che il Governo di Samminiato fosse Ghibellino, con tutto che questo paese fosse per antico la Residenza degli Imperatori, e de' loro Vicari nel luogo sopraccitato: vedo bene, che in molte congiunture favorì i Guelfi, e prima.

Nel 1251 i Fiorentini convennero co' Lucchesi, che si sarebbero adoprati di tirar dalla loro i Samminiatesi, così l'Ammirato il giovane: tal promessa mi fa credere, che i Samminiatesi o fussero, od inclinassero a Parte Guelfa, perché se fossero stati pretti Ghibellini, a tanto non si sarebbe avanzato il Comune di Firenze.

Nel 1260 è chiaro, che di quivi li mandò le genti all'Arbia, e fu di gran giovamento ai fuggitivi.

Nel 1276 nella pace conclusa alla Fossa Arnonica i Samminiatesi erano collegati co' Fiorentini, che si governavano a Parte Guelfa; così l'Ammirato il giovane.

Nel 1289 i Samminiatesi spedirono soccorso contro i Ghibellini d'Arezzo, dove il franco ed esperto valore d'un Cavaliere Samminiatese fu causa della vittoria di Campaldino: così raccontano le Croniche di Dino Compagni.

Nel 1297 racconta il sopraccitato Scipione, che nell'esercito spedito in favor del papa non solo vi erano le milizie di quivi, ma di più era Capitan Generale di tutto l'esercito Bertoldo Malpigli da Samminiato.

Nel 1301 il medesimo Scipione afferma che si confermò la taglia de' Guelfi in Toscana, alla quale comandava come Generale Barone de' Mangiadori da Samminiato.

Nel 1308 nelle Croniche del nostro Ser Giovanni di Lelmo si narra, che i Fiorentini, Sanesi, Samminiatesi, Lucchesi, ed altri Gulefi andarono coll'esercito contro gli Aretini.

Nel 1313 nelle suddette Croniche si fa menzione che, perché i Pisani ruppero guerra a' Samminiatesi, furono confinat nelle loro Ville molti Samminiatesi di Parte Ghibellina.

Nel 1318 nelle dette Croniche si narra che nella pace fatta in Napoli colla mediazione del Re Ruberto, i Samminiatesi come Guelfi ec.

Nel 1325 dopo la rotta d'Altopascio dice il Villani Libro 9 Cap. 303 che da nullo Guelfo ebbono subito aiuto, se non da Samminiato.

Nel 1343 raccontano l'Ammirato, ed il Boninsegni, che vedendosi alle strette i Fiorentini al tempo della cacciata del Duca d'Atene, chiesero aiuto ai Samminiatesi, i quali in meno di ventiquattro ore sperirono loro duemila uomini in soccorso, che molto ricreò, ed incoraggì lo sbigottito popolo di quella Città, la quale governandosi a Parte Guelfa, è credibile, che ricorresse agli amici, che se in Samminiato fosse stato governo Ghibellino, certamente non gli si sarebbe spedito così valido soccorso.

Nel 1347 mi do a credere, che in questo tempo visi vivesse a Parte Guelfa, per la lega fatta tra i Fiorentini, e' Samminiatesi, nella quale fra l'altre convenzioni si legge, che i Grandi di Samminiato fossero Grandi di Firenze, ed i Grandi di Firenze fossero Grandi di Samminiato. Vi è lo strumento riferito anco dall'Ammirato, e da altri. Ed in questo anno, io poco dopo vado pensando, che fatto il Sigillo, di che si discorre, perché quei Gigli pare, che denotino la stretta unione, che si fece in quest'anno tra i due Comuni, e poteasi dare che anco in Firenze si facesse un Sigillo coll'Arme propria del Comune di Firenze, con accanto, o sopra la Leonessa di Samminiato (lo che per altro non si crede) per denotare, che si viveva fra loro in concordia, ed aleanza.

Mè qui disdice l'aggiungere per maggiore schiarimento del Sigillo, come si trovano alcuni Ricordi MSS, circa gli affari di Samminiato, che nominano opportunamente i Dodici del Sigillo stesso; l'uno sotto l'anno 1309 ed è che: Piglio di Mess. Ridolfo Ciccioni feì nel viso Ser Fredi di Ser Ruggieri Bertacci della Contrada di Pancoli con un coltellaccio il dì primo di Maggio, il quale Ser Fredi usciva detto dì de0 Signori Dodici del Popolo di S. Miniato, e tutti i giurati per tal cosa con il Gonfalone incontanente consero alla Casa di detto Piglio, e quella per la parte li toccava spianarono fino a' fondamenti, essendo Capitano del Popolo Mess. Leuccio de' Guazzalotri da Prato, il quale dipoi condannò detto Piglio per detta ferita, e maleficio commesso in l. 1500 i suoi beni applicando alla Camera del Comune la metà, ed all'offeso il resto.

L'altro: i Ciccioni, e Mangiadori, e gli altri Nobili di S. Miniato adì 14 agosto 1309 roppero il Popolo di detta Terra, ed arsero tutti i Libri, e Statuti del Comune, e cacciarono li Signori Dodici del Palazzo, e così il Capitano del Popolo, e questo fecero perché s'era fatto uno Statuto, che i Nobili fossero tenuti sodare dinanzi al Capitano di lire 1000 di non offendere nessuno popolare, la qual cosa i Nobuli recusando, furono forzati combattere insieme. Vincendo i Nobili, come s'è detto di sopra molte Case de' Populari abbruciarono, e guastarono, e specialmente quelle di Bindo Vannucci, di Ser Matteo di Ser Arrigo Malederrate, e di Ser Giunta da Brusciana, e molte altre messe a scacco. E dopo questo il giorno seguente ad ora di Vespro detti Ciccioni, e Mangiadori con altro Nobili fecero consiglio per riformare la Terra, e dettero autorità, e potestà, e balia a Mess. Betto Tagliameli da Lucca in quel tempo Podestà di S. Miniato; e Mess. Barone de0 Mangiadori, e Mess. Tedaldo de' Ciccioni furono eletti Capitani, e Riformatori a riformar la Terra; i quali abitavano, e facevano residenza nel Palazzo nuovo del Popolo, dove elessero li Signori Dodici; dipoi con detti Signori s'elesse il Consiglio del Popolo, e della Guardia, e così d'accordo fu riformata la Terra, ed il Podestà per vigor dell'arbitro datoli fortemente puniva con aspezza, e specialmente Cinello di Bardo Bonfigli della Contrada di Pancoli, il quale avea morto Vanni di Ser Piero il Giovedì a' 22 d'Agosto, e volendolo ricomprare gli amici suoi lir. 1500 non ottenne la grazia, ma il dì seguente gli fu mozza la testa. Molte cose di Samminiato sono riferite dal soprallodarto Sig. Dottor Giovanni Lami nel suo Viaggio.

Ma per dire qualche cosa della Divisa di tal Luogo, ella, come è stato accennato di sopra, si è una Leonessa bianca in campo rosso avente uno stocco nella branca destra, sebbene poco nel Sigillo si conosce. In altro Sigillo parimente antico della Terra, oggi Città medesima, si legge attorno: SANTUS · MINIATUS · FUGURAM · DAT · LEONINAM.

Notar quindi si vuole, come il Comune di Samminiato l'anno 1491 concedè a Matteo di Manetto Carnesecchi, e suoi figliuoli, e discendenti di poter portare l'Arme stessa della Leonessa, in riguardo de' buoni portamenti fatti da esso Matteo stato Vicario ivi l'anno 1410 e di quelli ancora di Maneto padre di esso Matteo statone Vicario l'anno 1440. Ciò, che in varj luoghi in altri tempi a diverse Famiglie è stato fatto, full'esempio di quel che ha praticato talvolta il Comune di Firenze verso gli Ufficiali loro forestieri, che hanno fra noi amministrato la giustizia."

 

 

è una Leonessa bianca in campo rosso avente uno tocco nella branca destra , sebbene poco nel Sigillo si conosce. In altro Sigillo parimente antico della Terra, oggi Città medesima, si legge attorno: SANTTVS- MINIATVS FIGVRAM DAT LEONINAM.

 

San Miniato (Leonessa d'argento in campo rosso),

 

 

 

cortesia di Stefano Mari : San Miniato

 

 

da Wikipedia : odierno stemma del comune di San Miniato al Tedesco

 

 

 

 

Castello di Poppi---Salone

Cortesia generale Massimo Iacopi http://www.iacopi.it/

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANCORA DEGNA DI NOTA E' LA CONCESSIONE FATTA DA LEONE X

A BERNARDO CARNESECCHI DI ANDREA DI BERNARDO DI CRISTOFANO E ALLA SUA DISCENDENZA

 

Titolo di conte palatino

Concessione araldica del capo di Leone X sullo stemma

 

 

 

ASFi : Raccolta Ceramelli Papiani :stemma di Bernardo di Andrea di Bernardo Carnesecchi , sormontato dal capo di Papa Leone X

 

Bernardo di Andrea di Bernardo di Cristofano Carnesecchi era un acceso partigiano mediceo e sara' successivamente senatore sotto Cosimo I

Priore al momento della visita di Leone X sara onorato insieme con tutti gli altri membri della signoria col titolo di Conte palatino e con la concessione di poter apporre al proprio stemma il capo di Leone X cosi come da immagine

 

Il Monaldi sbaglia il nome e anziche' come Bernardo lo cita come Benedetto e molti poi ne seguono l'errore

Altri sbagliano vedendone il padre in Andrea di Paolo di Simone anziche' , come e' vero , in Andrea di Bernardo

Quell'Andrea di Bernardo celebre anche per la partecipazione ai tornei

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tre Maggiori Birth registrations Guild elections Bibliography

The Tre Maggiori. (Series 05). The Tre Maggiori, the highest executive offices of the Florentine Republic, consisted of the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia and Priors (assisted by a notary) and two advisory councils: the Buonuomini and the Gonfalonieri di Compagnia. The Gonfaloniere di Giustizia and Priors were called the "Signoria"; the two advisory councils the "Collegi". Legislation was initiated by the Signoria, discussed in consultation with the Buonuomini and Gonfalonieri di Compagnia, and then in certain cases agreed to or rejected by a general Consiglio del Popolo or Consiglio del Comune. In certain circumstances special temporary ad-hoc Balie (commissions), whose members included the men currently holding the Tre Maggiori, but also many others, were entrusted with matters of particular weight and political significance.

1282 -- June. The first three priors (Priori delle Arti--guilds) were elected: Bartolo di Iacopo Bardi (from the Arte del Calimala and the Sestiere of Oltrarno), Rosso Bacherelli (Arte del Cambio, Sestiere of S. Piero Scheraggio), and Salvi di Chiaro Girolami (Arte della Lana, Sestiere of S. Pancrazio). Previous governors of the city had been mostly nobles. In August the number of priors increased to six (representing different guilds and each of the six Sestieri of the city). Priors were elected by a variety of means, but initially generally by co-option in consultation with the outgoing Priors, the Savi, and the Consuls of the Major Guilds.

1293 -- November 1292 into the spring of 1293: "The Ordinances of Justice." This further defined the highest offices, and enfranchised some of the minor guilds. It defended the "Guelf" character of the regime by excluding nobles ("magnati", often "Ghibellines") from holding office. A seventh prior appeared as the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia ("vexillifer justitiae"--"Standard-bearer of Justice") who was to execute judicial sentences pronounced by the Podestà (the chief judicial official--always a foreigner) and to assume leadership of the guild militia.

1293 -- February. The first "Gonfaloniere di Giustizia": Baldo Ruffoli from the Sestiere of Porta del Duomo. He is said (by Davidsohn) to have been a protégé of Giano della Bella whose name is often associated with the Ordinances of Justice and who was one of the Priors selected in February 1293.

The Florentine constitution proved to be remarkably stable. However, political circumstances affected the election of the Tre Maggiori at several significant points. Florentine politics of the fourteenth century was marked by internal strife and foreign threat, and by a refinement of the electoral process. (For a full and detailed discussion of the development of the electoral system in the fourteenth century, see John M. Najemy, Corporatism and Consensus in Florentine Electoral Politics, 1280-1400. [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982].)

1301 -- In the continuing feud between the Guelf "Whites" (Cerchi) and "Blacks" (Donati), Corso Donati (supported by troops of Charles de Valois) entered the city in October, liberated the prisons, attacked the Palazzo della Signoria, and forced the election of a substitute Signoria on 7 November (all "Blacks") who remained until the next regularly elected Signoria that entered office on 15 December. Thus in November 1301 there are two lists of priors. The "Whites" did not return to power. Dante Alighieri (who had served as prior once) was exiled from Florence early in 1302 in the aftermath of this crisis.

1304 and 1313-16 -- In response to further civic strife the group in power took the precaution of nearly doubling the number of priors in the February and April elections of 1304, between the April election 1313 and the August election 1314, and in the October and December elections of 1316. Thus in these periods there is a doubled number of priors.

1328 -- A reform of the electoral system established the selection of men for the highest offices by sortition (drawing by lot from Borse--purses--the "Tratta" [drawing]; the plural is "Tratte") after previous periodic scrutinies of the eligible candidates. Although the twelve Buonuomini (two from each Sestiere--from 1321), and the nineteen Gonfalonieri di Compagnia (the standard bearers of the urban militia--four from the Sestiere of Oltrarno and three from each of the remaining Sestieri--from ca. 1304-06) existed earlier, the first listing of names in the Priorista di Palazzo (the official record of members of the Signoria) for Gonfalonieri di Compagnia dates from those entering office on 7 December, and for Buonuomini from those entering office on 12 December 1328.

1343 -- Following the attempt of Walter of Brienne (the so-called Duke of Athens) to assume the Lordship of Florence (September 1342 to July 1343), the groups who defeated him undertook a reform of the system of selection for the highest offices. In August, fourteen Riformatori under the leadership of the Bishop of Florence, Agnolo Acciaiuoli, briefly removed the prohibition against "magnati" ("grandi") holding office. The names of the advisory council of eight elected that month in substitution for the Buonuomini paired four "grandi" (Bartolo di Iacopo Bardi, Domenico di Iacopo Cavalcanti, Nepo di Doffo Spini, and Beltrame Pazzi) with four "popolani" (Adovardo Belfredelli, Francesco di Lotto Salviati, Piero di Feo, and Piero Rigaletti).

The Riformatori redistricted the city from six Sestieri into four Quartieri, which helped to contain the expanded population toward the recently constructed third circuit of walls. The Sestiere of Oltrarno became the Santo Spirito quarter, the Sestiere of S. Piero Scheraggio and a third of the of the Sestiere of S. Piero Maggiore became the Santa Croce quarter, the Sestieri of S. Trinita and S. Pancrazio became the S. Maria Novella quarter, and the Sestiere of Porta del Duomo and two thirds of the Sestiere of S. Piero Maggiore became the S. Giovanni quarter.

The first solution for the new system of selecting priors gave an assured place to the "grandi". In the election of twelve priors in August 1343 one was chosen among "grandi" for each quarter, and two among "popolani". But the "grandi" priors were expelled from the city on 22 September and the counter-solution arranged by the remaining "popolani" priors from August for the next election of priors (October 1343) created the system that was to continue: the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia and Notaio, eight Priori (two from each quarter), exclusion of "grandi" from holding office, and election of priors both from both the Arti Maggiori and Arti Minori (in different but varying ratios). The distribution of office among different guilds fluctuated during the 1340s and early 1350s. The number of Buonuomini remained twelve after the reform of 1343, but the number of Gonfalonieri di Compagnia was reduced from 19 to 16, one from each of the four Gonfaloni in each of the four quarters. (No names of regular Buonuomini were recorded in the Priorista di Palazzo or the Giornali of the Tratte between the elections of May 1342 and June 1346, or of Gonfalonieri di Compagnia between July 1342 and December 1345.)

The dates of entry into office also changed. The Gonfaloniere di Giustizia, Notaio, and Priori had earlier entered office for their two-month terms on the 15th day of the month; now they entered office on the first day of the successive month: January, March, May, July, September, November. The Gonfalonieri di Compagnia entered office for their four-month terms on the 7th day of the month after their election: January, June, September. The Buonuomini, however, entered office for their three-month terms on the 15th day of the month (December, March, June, September) and were generally selected about the 12th day of the month they entered office. In a given year the first term of office for the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia, Notaio, and Priori, and for the Gonfalonieri di Compania began in the first week of January after their election in the last days of December of the previous year; the first term for Buonuomini for that year began on 15 December of the previous year. (Although by the Florentine calendar, in use until 1751, the year began on 25 March, the first term of office holding for a year began nonetheless in December-January when the whole spectrum of office holders changed together. All dates in the data file have been changed to the modern system of beginning the year on 1 January.)

1348 -- The Black Death so decimated the population of Florence that the Borse from the scrutiny of 1343 had to be opened and the names read out to determine who were still among the living, and new Borse were created (Borsa vecchia, Borsa dei Morti, Borsa nuova). Before 1348 the population of Florence may have reached nearly 100,000; thereafter it fluctuated around 50,000, with perhaps 20,000 less in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, and perhaps 20,000 more in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.

Scrutinies: The first step in attaining office was to pass one of the periodic scrutinies of eligible candidates. Candidates had to be enrolled in one of the guilds and (at least initially) to actually exercise a trade. Scrutinies were carried out, and the proposed names were voted on, by special commissions that had varying composition. Ideally a scrutiny was held and new Borse were composed about every five years, but as in all as aspects of Florentine office holding a scrutiny involved political considerations. It could be to the advantage of the group in power to delay holding a scrutiny and creating new Borse. However, a political crisis generally hastened a new scrutiny.

Extractions and Divieti: The Borse containing the name slips were kept under lock and key in the sacristy of the Basilica of Santa Croce. The chest they were kept in was taken to the Palazzo della Signoria and opened in the presence of the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia, Priors, Collegi, and other officials. Extractions by the Notaio of the Riformagioni (one of the subordinate administrative officials) began with the oldest existing set of Borse (a new scrutiny did not negate the right of individuals earlier scrutinized to be considered for office--and older Borse were sometimes joined together). Names were drawn and their current eligibility for office was determined. Initial extraction meant that a man had been "veduto" ("seen"), but this did not necessarily mean that he was "seduto" ("seated") in office. Divieti (prohibitions from the final "seating") often resulted from an individual having held office too recently, or from one of his immediate family members being currently in office. Increasingly, as the system developed, fathers entered their under-aged sons in scrutinies, and the individual drawn might be under-age for the office in question. Individuals might be absent from Florence, in tax arrears (speculo), or subject to a variety of other conditions. Also, the individual in question might have died since his name was initially placed in a purse. The extractions among candidates deemed eligible continued until the right number of office holders was "seated".

The names of men drawn for office ("veduti" and "seduti") were recorded in the "Giornali" of the Tratte (our primary source). The entries in the Giornali begin on 29 December 1345, but all names were not recorded at first and there are other gaps in the Giornali. Before 1345 we found names from the Priorista di Palazzo; after 1345 we continued to fill missing names for the Signoria from the Priorista, but since the Giornali are the only continuous later source of names for the two Collegi, some gaps remain for these offices in the fourteenth century (see the note on the coding and editing of the data). But, to our knowledge, such detailed information remains for no other electoral system of such antiquity as what is contained in the Giornali of the Tratte.

1378 -- The "Ciompi" revolt. The unsuccessful Ciompi revolt of minor guildsmen and men in unorganized trades ("scorporati") aimed at reducing the dominance in office of men in the major guilds. The turbulent and bloody events of that summer are reflected in the identity of men holding the Tre Maggiori. One notices the substitute Signoria elected on 26 July, with unusual occupations among the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia and Priors, other substitutions on 2 September, and the one Signoria elected under the new rules of the Ciompi in August/September from three Borse representing different sets of guilds: Arti Maggiori, Arti Minori, and "Popolo di Dio" (the unorganized trades). One also notices the unusually frequent mortality and substitution among the Gonfalonieri di Compagnia in 1378.

The distribution of offices ("distributio") among the major and minor guilds. Not only were offices strictly distributed among the different districts of the city, office holders were also chosen from different purses with names of members of the major and minor guilds. This tension was apparent during the 1340s and at the time of the Ciompi, and details of the distribution further developed in the two decades following the Ciompi revolt. In relation to political considerations of the electoral system, the guilds had also changed in organization, and had come to represent not so much individual economically distinct trades as political coalitions of trades (among the Arti Maggiori the Medici and Speziali [doctors and apothecaries]; among the Arti Minori the Oliandoli and Pizzicagnoli [oil dealers and sausage-and-cheese sellers]).

From the end of the 1340s the office of prior was distributed so that two of the eight priors at each election came from the Arti Minori; the rest were from the Arti Maggiori. Selection of the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia rotated by quarter in successive elections and the quarter of the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia determined the quarter from which the two priors from the Arti Minori were selected. This distinction is clear from the occupations reported for priors, and where the Giornali of the Tratte or Priorists from which we recorded names did not make the distinction we have added it between 1350 and the election of priors in April 1378 (TPURS ‘99’ meaning Arti Maggiori or "unknown" and ‘03’ meaning Arti Minori). The distinction of purses is clearly indicated in the Giornali of the Tratte for 1378. However, in the two decades after 1378 (until the Giornali again began to note the distinction in 1399) the system continued to develop and it is not always certain from which purse individuals were drawn, so we did not edit the TPURS coding. Users of the data file might be able to deduce the guild association of individuals for this period from occupations, when these were reported. We have edited lapses in the TPURS coding in the Signoria for the Arti Minori from 1399 to the end of the series.

As well, in lasting form from about 1382, distinctions were made for the Buonuomini and Gonfalonieri di Compagnia. This involved a more complex system of rotation, which was not, however, noted in the Giornali of the Tratte until September 1406 for the Buonuomini, and December 1406 for the Gonfalonieri di Compagnia. We have not added missing purse distinctions for the Buonuomini and Gonfalonieri di Compagnia before 1406, but thereafter we filled in obvious lapses. In the system of rotation one quarter of the men chosen at each election came from the Arti Minori. For the Buonuomini this meant three out of the twelve individuals at each election (one for each of three quarters), the only predictable element being that at each election there was no one from the Arti Minori in one quarter (for the December election S. Maria Novella, in March of the next year S. Giovanni, in June S. Spirito, and in September S. Croce). For the Gonfalonieri di Compagnia the system was still more complex: at each election four men from the Arti Minori were chosen by rotation among the four "gonfaloni" of each quarter (in S. Maria Novella, Vipera [code 31] for one election, followed by Unicorno [32] in the next, Leon Rosso [33] in the next, Leon Bianco [34] in the next, then again Vipera, and so on).

Electoral controls. A further problem in the system of drawings by lot, beyond an equitable distribution of offices by district of the city and by group among the guilds, was to secure effective office holders, or at least men loyal to the group in power. Already in the 1340s "accoppiatori" were used in some instances to preselect candidates in the drawings. Another means was also adopted to achieve this end, the selection of half the priors accorded to the Arte Maggiori from a special "Borsellino" of true Guelf guildsmen thought loyal to the group in power--"quelli cittadini li quali paresse loro [the Signoria in 1387] che fossero molto confidenti allo Stato loro" as one chronicler (Buoninsegni) wrote. The use of the Borsellino appears to have begun about 1387 but it is not noted in the Giornali of the Tratte until December 1404. An indication that the men in the Borsellino were pre-selected is that in the extractions for office fewer men from the Borsellino (code 02) had to be "seen" before one was "seated" than from general purse of major guildsmen (code 01); clearly there was little point in pre-selecting men who would later prove to be ineligible through the Divieti. The Borsellino was used through the fifteenth century until the suspension of the Tratte by the Consiglio Maggiore in 1495, although it was less frequently noted in the Giornali of the Tratte after the 1440s. It was not noted in the Giornali of the Tratte after the Medici restoration of 1512.

The use of accoppiatori was an important element of the electoral system in the fifteenth century under the Medici dominance, although not in all years, and it went well beyond selecting some priors through the Borsellino. For the October election in 1403 and again for the October elections of 1433 and 1434 (after the banishment and then just after the return of Cosimo de’ Medici) the names of the Signoria are missing from the Giornali of the Tratte; we supplied them from the Priorista di Palazzo. There is the notation: "hic deficit prioratus". This might indicate that the offices were filled a mano (that is, in effect, by appointment). (The system of electoral controls under the Medici is very thoroughly discussed in Niccolai Rubinstein, The Government of Florence under the Medici (1434-1494). [Second edition, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997].)

Birth registrations. (Series 10). Due to the increasing tendency of fathers to enter their under-aged sons in scrutinies, and the age reqirements for office holding (age 40 for the office of Gonfaloniere di Guistizia and age 30 for other offices), individuals born after 1381 were required in 1429 to submit a declaration of their date of birth to the Conservatori di Legge. There was further legislation in this matter in 1457. The "approvazioni di età " of the Conservatori di Legge no longer exist; the registers in the Tratte archive from which we derived "birth dates" for Series 10 are largely alphabetical compilations made from them for internal use of the Tratte at the time of drawings. After 1457 the date when the birth was registered was also noted. Some individuals stated their age at the time of registration rather than an exact birth date, and some birth dates were declared retrospectively back into the 1380s. After 1457 the birth dates of about half of young men were declared before they reached age 20; three quarters before they reached age 30. Declarations were most numerous in years of scrutinies. To be sure, many individuals whose birth dates were registered never held office.

1434 -- Beginning of the Medici dominance. In September 1433 Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici, an opponent of the group in power headed by Rinaldo di Maso degli Albizzi, was arrested and banished from Florence. This produced a political crisis. The Signoria elected in August of 1434, which entered office on 1 September, summoned a general assembly of citizens, a "Parlamento", that approved creation of a Balia. This met on 28 September, recalled Cosimo on 29 September, and then exiled Rinaldo degli Albizzi and some of his followers. There was subsequently a new scrutiny of office holders and new purses were created. The Medici exercised their dominance and leadership of Florence without holding office very often, as can be easily ascertained from the Tratte data file. Cosimo de’ Medici (Pater Patriae) was succeeded as head of the family on his death in on 1 August 1464 by his son Piero (Il Gottoso) who died on 3 December 1469. He was followed by Piero’s famous son Lorenzo (Il Magnifico) who in turn died on 8 April 1492. Lorenzo’s son Piero was expelled from Florence in November 1494 partly because of diplomatic errors he had made in the foreign crisis provoked by the invasion of Italy by King Charles VIII of France, who entered Florence briefly in that month.

1478 -- The Pazzi conspiracy. A group of conspirators attempted to assassinate Lorenzo de’ Medici and his brother Giuliano in the Duomo on 26 April 1478. Lorenzo escaped; Giuliano died. Iacopo di Andrea de’ Pazzi was arrested and hanged; his body was desecrated. The election of new Gonfalonieri di Compagnia of 28 April was delayed until 8 May. The Pazzi conspiracy probably influenced creation of the Council of Seventy in 1480, which assumed some powers of the Signoria, a decline in influence of the Tre Maggiori that developed further under the Consiglio Maggiore of 1494.

1494-1512 -- The Consiglio Maggiore. In the anti-Medici reaction of November 1494, a new Parlamento and Balia created the Consiglio Maggiore on 24 December, an unwieldy council with more than 3,000 members (anyone who themselves or in their immediate family had been drawn earlier for the Tre Maggiori was able to sit in it). The great assembly room of the Palazzo della Signoria was hastily built for its meetings. The room was initially to have been frescoed by Michelangelo and by Leonardo Da Vinci; the present decorations were commissioned by Duke Cosimo I de’ Medici from Giorgio Vasari in the 1560s, when the ceiling of the hall was also raised. In response to the uncertainty of the times new accoppiatori were named, and the number of Gonfalonieri di Compagnia was tripled in the December election of 1494. The charismatic preaching of Fra Girolamo Savonarola, a Domenican Friar from Ferrara become Prior of the convent of San Marco in 1490, also influenced the political situation. He was eventually arrested, excommunicated, tried, hanged, and burned at the stake in the Piazza della Signoria on 23 May 1498. The political situation in Florence was further complicated (up into the 1530s) by the intervention of France and Spain in the wars of Italy. Out of the turbulence of this period arose the intense political discussion reflected in the works of Niccolò di Bernardo Machiavelli (who was never drawn for the Tre Maggiori) and of Francesco di Piero Guicciardini (who served as prior once).

The Consiglio Maggiore suspended the selection of office holders through the Tratte and substituted a system of selection by the Consiglio through Electors (who were themselves ineligible to hold office). The elections began in May 1495. With suspension of the Tratte the Giornali of the Tratte also soon ceased; we have filled in the names of office holders from other sources. Only the names of men "seated" in office are thus available between 1497 (when the Giornali ended) and the Medici restoration of September 1512, and not all details are available for many of these.

1502 -- Piero Soderini "gonfaloniere a vita". In an effort to stabilize the politics of the Consiglio Maggiore, Piero di Tommaso Soderini was elected "Gonfaloniere di Giustizia a vita" (for life) in September 1502. Thus, from his election, there are no further names of Gonfalonieri di Giustizia until the elections of October 1512, after the Medici restoration.

1512 -- The Medici restoration. With a Spanish army encamped at Prato, Piero Soderini fled into exile at the end of August 1512. The remaining members of the Signoria repudiated him. A new Parlamento (limited to Medici supporters) and Balia restored the Medici in the person, in effect, of Cardinal Giovanni de’ Medici (the second son of Lorenzo Il Magnifico) who was then head of the family. He had been made a cardinal in 1489 and was elected pope as Leo X in March 1513. He died in 1521. The Medici party aimed to restore the political system to what it had been under Lorenzo, with the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia, the Priors, and the two Collegi again chosen through the Tratte, although elections were now controlled by the Medici party. The first elections through the Tratte were those of October 1512. The Consiglio Maggiore was replaced by a Senate of 70 and a Council of 100. (A succinct and detailed account of the last period of the republic is J.N. Stephens, The Fall of the Florentine Republic, 1512-1530. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983].)

1527-1530 -- The "Last Republic". After the sack of Rome by mercenary troops of Emperor Charles V in May 1527, and the flight to Orvieto of Pope Clement VII (Giulio de’ Medici), the anti-Medici groups in Florence seized power. Giulio de’ Medici was a son of Lorenzo’s murdered brother Giuliano, and as a cardinal he had supervised the regime in Florence; he was elected pope in 1523. In Florence, a new Balia prepared to restore the Consiglio Maggiore of 1494. Substitute office holders for the Signoria and Collegi were chosen on May 31st, and the names of those subsequently chosen by the Consiglio Maggiore were recorded in the Giornali of the Tratte. The Gonfaloniere di Giustizia was again elected for a longer term: Niccolò di Piero Capponi (May 1527), Francesco di Niccolò Carducci (April 1529), Raffaello di Francesco Girolami (January 1530).

Following reconciliation between Pope Clement VII and Emperor Charles V, Florence was besieged by Imperial troops under the Prince of Orange from the autumn of 1529 until the surrender of the city on August 12th 1530, after the final battle of Gravinana.

1530-32 -- The Duchy. The Medici were restored in April 1531 by Charles V in the person of Alessandro de’ Medici who was made Lord of Florence. Alessandro was an illegitimate son of Lorenzo de’ Medici the Duke of Urbino, and thus a grandson of Piero, and great-grandson of Lorenzo Il Magnifico. A year later, in April 1532, twelve Riformatori from the Medici faction of the Florentine elite changed the constitution. The reform of 1532 recognized Alessandro de’ Medici as Duke, abolished the Signoria and Collegi, and established a new tightly controlled Magistrato Supremo under the Duke, which stood above a Senate of 48 and Council of 200. The last Gonfalonieri di Compagnia were selected in April 1531, the last Gonfaloniere di Giustizia, Notaio and Priors in February 1532, and the last Buonuomini in March.

When Alessandro de’ Medici was assassinated in January 1537 (by his kinsman Lorenzino de’ Medici--called "Lorenzaccio") the Florentine elite secured recognition of Cosimo de’ Medici as Duke. Cosimo was the son of Giovanni delle Bande Nere, a distant cousin of the fifteenth century Cosimo Pater Patriae. Under Duke Cosimo I (he was made Grand Duke in 1570) the more bureaucratic institutions of the Medici Grand Duchy developed.

Guild elections. (Series 06). It is often said that the Florentine republic emerged initially out of the guilds, since guild membership was a basic requirement of office holding. The number of recognized guilds was fixed at 21 in the early years of the priorate: seven "major guilds" and fourteen "minor guilds".

The seven "major guilds" were the Arte dei Giudici e Notai (Lawyers and Notaries); the Calimala [or Mercatanti] (Great merchants); the Arte del Cambio (Money changers); the Arte della Lana (Wool masters); the Arte della Seta [or Por S. Maria] (Silk masters), the Arte dei Medici e Speziali (Doctors and Apothecaries); and the Arte dei Vaiai e Pellicciai (Furriers and Leather masters).

The fourteen "minor guilds" were the Arte dei Beccai (Butchers); the Arte dei Calzolai (Shoemakers); the Arte dei Fabbri (Blacksmiths); the Arte dei Linaiuoli e Rigattieri (Linen drapers and used clothes dealers); the Arte dei Maestri di Pietra e Legname (Builders); the Arte dei Vinattieri (Wine sellers); the Arte di Albergatori (Innkeepers); the Arte di Oliandoli e Pizzicagnoli (Oil dealers and Sausage and Cheese sellers); the Arte dei Cuoiai e Galigai (minor Leather masters); the Arte dei Corazzai e Spadai (Armorers); the Arte dei Coreggiai (Belt makers); the Arte dei Chiavaioli (Locksmiths); the Arte dei Legnaioli (Carpenters); and the Arte dei Fornai (Bakers). Although the guilds existed earlier (Giovanni Villani traced the seven major guilds to 1266), the later guild statutes dated generally from the 1290s to 1320s.

Florence, where a limited number of "official" guilds were embedded in the constitution, differed from other Italian communes where a larger spectrum of trades were formally organized. Florentine practice was to associate additional trades within existing guilds (thus the Giudici e Notai, the Medici e Speziali, the Vaiai e Pellicciai, the Linaiuoli e Rigattieri, the Oliandoli e Pizzicagnoli, the Cuoiai e Galigai, and the Corazzai e Spadai--all associated trades grouped together). For instance, the Tintori (dyers) struggled to obtain independent organization in the fourteenth century, but succeeded only briefly, in 1378-82, at the time of the Ciompi revolt. The few individuals identified by occupation as ‘Tintori" in fifteenth-century guild elections were members of the Arte della Lana or the Arte dei Linaiuoli e Rigattieri. Further sub-groups can be noted in the fifteenth century: Goldsmiths (Orafi) were mostly associated with the Arte della Seta; Perfumers (Aromatari) and Barbers (Barbieri) with the Medici e Speziali; Fishmongers (Pesciaiuoli) with the Beccai, Cutlers (Coltellinai) with the Fabbri, Tailors (Sarti) with the Linaiuoli e Rigattieri; Sculptors (for instance the Della Robbia family) with the Maestri di Pietra e Legname; Grain or Fodder Dealers (Biadaiuoli) with the Oliandoli and Pizzicagnoli; Furniture makers (Cassettai) with the Legnaiuoli. Trade distinctions were also made in the composition of the different Borse from which guild consuls were drawn. Consuls of the Arte della Lana were drawn from four Borse representing different districts of the city (called "conventi"): S. Pancrazio (the western part of the city), Oltrarno (the southern part), S. Martino (the northern part), and S. Piero Scheraggio (the eastern part). Consuls of the Arte della Seta were drawn from three Borse: Setaiuoli (silk masters), Ritagliatori (cloth finishers), and Fondaci (warehouse keepers--including goldsmiths). Consuls of the Arte dei Linaiuoli e Rigattieri were drawn from two Borse: Linaiuoli (Linen drapers) and Rigattieri (Clothes dealers).

The guilds enforced the prescribed modes of production, matriculation, scrutinies, and internal disputes. Each was governed by a magistracy of "Consuls" drawn by lot among eligible guild masters--subordinate workers in trades ("sottoposti") were ineligible. The Consuls served for four-month terms, entering office in January, May, and September. The Arte della Lana had eight consuls, the Seta, Medici e Speziali, Beccai, Calzolai and Fabbri had six, the Calimala (Mercatanti), Cambio, Vaiai e Pellicciai, Linaiuoli e Rigattieri, Maestri di Pietra e Legname, Oliandoli e Pizzicagnoli, Coreggai, Chiavaioli, Legnaioli, and Fornai had four, and the Vinattieri, Albergatori, Cuoiai e Galigai, and Corazzai e Spadai had three. Scrutinies of eligible candidates were carried out within each guild. The drawings by lot and divieti from the final seating operated in a manner similar to that for the Tre Maggiori.

There has been little study of the Florentine guilds over the past generation. One might assume that a particular family would be associated mostly with one guild (as was sometimes the case), however there was clearly a flexibility in guild membership. Some families (for instance the Medici) found it to their economic and political advantage to be associated with several guilds. Surnames, of course, are a poor predictor of family cohesion, and one notes that many surnames (concealing branches of families) were distributed widely among different guilds, and even between major and minor guilds.

The Mercanzia. The Mercanzia (from 1308-- the Universitas mercatorum, or in the fifteenth century the Sei di mercanzia) was the high commercial court. Its magistracy (that served for three-month terms in the early fifteenth century) consisted initially of one member from each of the five more commercial guilds: the Mercatanti, Cambio, Lana, Seta and Medici e Speziali. A sixth member of the court was added from the minor guilds in 1372 (and at the time of the Ciompi there were five members from the minor guilds, which returned to one in 1387). The members from the major guilds were drawn from Borse composed by each of the five guilds represented; the sixth member of the court was drawn from one combined Borsa composed for the Arte dei Vaiai e Pellicciai and the fourteen minor guilds. The court also employed a foreign jurist (whose names do not appear in the data file).

The Mercanzia was a quite important magistracy in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth century. Its members sat ex-officio in the Consiglio del Popolo, and they also participated in the drawings for the Tre Maggiori. The court dealt with serious matters such as bankruptcy, fraud and commercial dealings with foreign states. Progressively in the fourteenth century it assumed executive authority in carrying out sentences pronounced by the consuls of the guilds. Gradually (and particularly in the period after the Ciompi revolt) the Tre Maggiori and other higher magistracies encroached on the independence of the guilds, subordinating them to the state, and the Mercanzia had a role in this process. In 1393 it assumed a supervisory role in the elections of guild consuls, thus giving rise to a series of archival registers (Tratte di tutti i consolati delle arti) that recorded the drawings for office for the Mercanzia itself, and for twenty of the twenty-one guilds (the Arte dei Giudici e Notai was excepted). The Mercanzia declined somewhat in significance in the late fifteenth century through a series of measures introduced under Lorenzo de’ Medici in the 1470s (and in 1477 the terms of magistrates of the Mercanzia were reduced from four to three annually).

The Mercanzia registers of guild elections are very similar to the Giornali of the Tratte for drawings for the Tre Maggiori, and they are the source for the names in Series 06 of the data file. The registers contain the names and dates of drawing for all "veduti" and "seduti", indicating the result of the drawing for each, the office and the date of purse. Unfortunately, not all of these registers have survived. Names exist in continuous series from the elections of December 1393 to August 1421, from August 1429 to December 1443, from August 1465 to April 1474, and from April 1480 to December 1497. David Herlihy had coded the registers up through 1497. The volumes continue into the 1530s after another gap between 1498 and 1507. We were not able to complete the series after 1497, although we did fill in names in 1433-34 that were missing from Mercanzia 83. It would undoubtedly be possible to find further names of individuals drawn for office in the missing years (especially for the Mercanzia itself), but it is doubtful that the full spectrum of guild elections could be reconstructed. Nonetheless, the surviving registers provide a good basis for assessing the participation of individuals and families in different guilds for most of the fifteenth century.

 

 

 

 

A Brief Codebook for the Tratte Data File.


 

 

 

 

SERSeries.
 05     -Tre maggiori (1282-1532--c. 82,000 records).
 06     -Guild elections (for 1393-1421, 1429-1444, 1465-1474, 1480-1498--c. 63,000 records).
 10     -Birth registrations (beginning in 1429--c. 21,000 records).
RNUMThe Register Number in the Florentine Archivio di Stato. (Note that the following numerical variables are 'alphanumeric' and have to be entered with a 'leading zero' (1=01): SER, RNUM, PAGE, DDRAW, MDRAW, YDRAW, QUAR, TPURS, DPURS, OFFICE, TELEC, RDRAW.)
PAGEThe Page or folio number.
DDRAWThe Day of the drawing (99=unknown).
 Tre maggiori and Guild elections:
 Before 1343 the day of drawing for the Signoria was reported conventionally as the 15th day of the month, the day the term began. From 1343 to the end of the series, the DDRAW was the day the office holder was drawn for office as stated in the Giornali if the Tratte, except that in records taken from the Priorista di Palazzo (which reported the day the term began) the DDRAW has been standardized to the 28th day of the month before the individual entered office to make these records consistent with the Giornali practice (See the Historical Overview). The Guild elections follow the practice for the Signoria after 1343.
 Births: DDRAW is the day of birth. When the individual stated his age rather than a birth date the birth date was estimated by subtracting the age from the year of registration (DPURS). In these c. 1000 records the DDRAW has the value 88 and the MDRAW (here month of birth) is the stated age. (There was age rounding, 45 being the favorite stated age.)
MDRAWThe Month of drawing.
 Tre maggiori and Guild elections: Note that from 1343 onward the month of entering office for the Signoria and Gonfalonieri (who now entered office the first week of the month) was the month after the month of drawing (Buonuomini, however, entered office the 15th day of the month they were drawn--see Historical Overview).
 Births: MDRAW is the month of birth. When the individual stated his age it is the stated age.
YDRAWThe Year of drawing.
 Tre maggiori and Guild elections: Note that most office holders selected in December actually entered office in January of the following year. (Years were standardized to the modern practice of beginning the year on 1 January.)
 Births: YDRAW is the stated or estimated year of birth (standardized when possible to modern reckoning).
QUARThe Quarter or Gonfalone. Before 1343 Florence was districted into Sestieri; after 1343 into Quartieri and Gonfaloni. In the Guild elections no quarter was reported and all the QUAR values are '99'.
 Sestieri:
 01=Oltrarno
 02=S. Piero Scheraggio
 03=S. Trinita
 04=S. Pancrazio
 05=Porta del Duomo
 06=S. Piero Maggiore
 Quartieri and Gonfaloni:
 10=S. Spirito (11=Scala, 12=Nicchio, 13=Ferza, 14=Drago).
 20=S. Croce (21=Carro, 22=Bue, 23=Leon Nero, 24=Ruote).
 30=S. Maria Novella (31=Vipera, 32=Unicorno, 33=Leon Rosso, 34=Leon Bianco).
 40=S. Giovanni (41=Leon d'Oro, 42=Drago, 43=Chiavi, 44=Vaio)
TPURSThe Type of purse. (See Distribution of offices in the Historical Overview.)
  Tre Maggiori--In general:
99=The type of purse was not specified, or it was the general purse reflecting the Major Guilds.
03=The purse of artisans (Minor Guilds). (Note however that the distinction beween major and minor guilds was generally not reported before 1404--See Historical Overview.)
 
(1343)
As above, except:
04="Grandi"
 
(ca. 1345-55) (See Historical Overview.)
As above, except:
13="Borsa Vecchia"
19="Borsa dei Morti"
91="Borsa Nuova"
(The Borse in these years were not systematically reported in the Giornali.)
 
(1378--the "Ciompi" revolt)
As above, except:
05="Arti Maggiori"
06="Popolo di Dio" (unorganized trades)
 
(For priors 1404-1495)
As above, except:
01=The general purse reflecting the Major Guilds.
02=The "special purse" ("borsellino"). (See Electoral Controls in the Historical Overview.)
  Guild elections--In general:
99=Not specified, or a purse reflecting the major guilds.
03=A purse reflecting the minor guilds
(Mercanzia--OFFICE=06): The TPURS code is the code for the guild represented. (Representatives of five major guilds were always present; the sixth member of the court was drawn at random from Arte dei Vaiai e Pellicciai and the minor guilds.) (Arte della Lana--OFFICE=24): The TPURS codes reflect the four 'convents' of the Arte della Lana. 05=S. Pancrazio, 10=Oltrarno, 68=S. Martino, 64=S. Pier Scheraggio. Two consuls were selected from each 'convent'. (Arte della Seta--OFFICE=25): 01=Setaiuoli, 02=Ritagliatori, 04=Fondaci. Two consuls were selected from each group. (Arte dei Linaiuoli e Rigattieri--OFFICE=31): 01=Rigattieri, 02=Linaiuoli. Two consuls were selected from each group.
  Births: All the values for TPURS are '00'.
DPURSThe Date of Purse: the date when the Borsa was composed (see Historical Overview). (9999=Date unknown.)
 Tre maggiori: When dates such as '3448' appear it means that two purses had been combined, in this case the Borse of 1434 and 1448. (The DPURS is not available before 1343 or after 1495 [the few DPURS dates in Tratte 608 for 1512-32 are dates of birth]; between 1343 and 1495 it is available for only about 60 per cent of the records.)
 Guild elections: The dates of purses were obscure and have not been systematically edited. When values such as '5809' appear, the year and month is indicated (November 1458?); however the order of reporting the year and month was sometimes reversed.
 Births: DPURS is the year of registration. In Tratte 115 and Tratte 79 the year of registration was assumed to be 1429 unless the individual was born after 1429.
OFFICEThe Office:
 Tre maggiori.
 01=Gonfaloniere di Giustizia
 02=Notaio of the Signoria
 08=Priori
 12=Buonuomini
 16=Gonfalonieri di Compagnia
 (89=Knights created 1378-82; 99=Uncertain, or "Grandi fatti popolani" [RDRAW=71]; "Popolani fatti grandi" [RDRAW=81] in 1378-82 -- See Note on Coding and Editing.)
 Guild elections: 06=Mercanzia, Major guilds: 21=Arte dei Giudici e notai (note that only one election for the Giudici e Notai (in 1393) was recorded in the Mercanzia registers [because the Giudici e Notai were not elected magistrates of the court]), 22=Mercatanti, 23=Cambio, 24=Lana, 25=Seta, 26=Medici e Speziali, 27=Vaiai e Pellicciai, Minor guilds: 28=Beccai, 29=Calzolai, 30=Fabbri, 31=Linaiuoli e Rigattieri, 32=Maestri di Pietra e Legname, 33=Vinattieri, 34=Albergatori, 35=Oliandoli e Pizzicagnoli, 36=Cuoiai e Galigai, 37=Coreggiai, 38=Corazzai e Spadai, 39=Chiavaioli, 40=Legnaioli, 41=Fornai.
 Births: All the values for OFFICE are '00'.
TELECThe type of election.
 Tre maggiori and Guild elections:
 5=a regular election.
 6=a special election or an election beyond the usual beginning of the term (may also indicate an individual chosen to replace another).
 1=an individual who did not complete his term (he may have died).
 2=an individual specified to have replaced another who had not completed his term. (In some instances where it was impossible to ascertain who had replaced who TELEC was left as '5' or '6'.)
 8=an election through the Consiglio Maggiore (1495-1512).
 9=a blank record. (see Note on Coding and Editing.)
 Births: All the values for TELEC are '0'.
RDRAWThe results of the drawing.
 Tre maggiori and Guild elections: (The following are the most common codes; for the others refer to the pull-down list of RDRAW codes.)
 01=elected.
 02=rejected under the general Divieto. (This usually indicated that the individual had held office too recently or currently held another office. Most names with the general Divieto were not included in the file. (See Note on Coding and Editing.)
 04=Absent from city.
 05=A minor under the age required for the office. (40 for the Gonfaloniere di Giustizia; 30 for other offices.)
 09=Dead. The individual had died since his name was put into the purse.
 43=In "Speculo". This generally meant that the individual was in tax arrears and was thus not eligible for office, but it might also have had other as yet uncertain meanings.
 In some periods other codes appear frequently. For instance, in 1494-1495, when the Tratta of office holders was suspended and elections began through the Consiglio Maggiore, the codes '51' and '53' mean that the individual was an elector (or absent elector) of the Consiglio Maggiore, and thus not eligible for office.
Names:
SURNAM1The surname of the individual. (See List of Surnames appearing in the Tratte data file and Note on Names. Surnames retaining particles are spelled as one word (DEL GARBO=DELGARBO). In all the name variables, and in OCNAME and ORIGIN, names are truncated after eleven characters.)
SURNAM2 A second part of the surname (rarely used).
COM1Comment on the first name of the individual. The same codes are used for NAME2, NAME3, and NAME4
 0=No comment.
 21=Title of 'Ser' (indicates a notary).
 32=Title of 'Maestro'
 99=Title of 'Messire'
 03=Very occasionally used in comments on patronymics for a name thought to be a nickname.
NAME1The first name of the individual
COM2Comment on the first patronymic (as above). (In the Birth records, when an individual was ascertainably age 20 or younger (an arbitrary age) at the time of registration, and an occupation was reported, the occupation was assumed to be that of the father. The OCSTAT code is reported as COM2, the value for COM4 is '5', and the OCNAME is reported as SURNAM2.)
NAME2The first patronymic.
COM3Comment on the second patronymic (as above).
NAME3The second patronymic (when present).
COM4Comment on the third patronymic (as above).
NAME4The third patronymic (when present).
Occupations and Places of Origin:
OCNAMEThe name of the occupation of the individual (when reported).
OCSTATThe numerical code assigned to the occupation.
 (David Herlihy used the same occupation codes for the Tratte as he had used for the Catasto of 1427. His coding scheme, which we followed, tended to group the major occupation found in a guild to the code he also used for guilds in the guild elections; other occupations were coded distinctly using the higher numbers. See List of Occupations.) Note that overall only about 14 per cent of records list an occupation.  But at an individual level you can do better than that since some records for an individual may list an occupation, while others do not, and if the individual participated in guild elections the guild involved provides a rough indication of occupation.
 Arti maggiori:
 21-Giudici e Notai=code 21 [Lawyers(=also code 99) and notaries]; 22-Calimala (Mercantanti) [Great merchants]; 23-Cambio [Money changers]; 24-Lana [Wool]; 25-Seta (Por S. Maria) [Silk]; 26-Medici e Speziali [Doctors and Apothecaries]; 27-Vaiai e Pellicciai [Furriers].
 Arti minori:
 28-Beccai [Butchers]; 29-Calzolai [Shoemakers]; 30-Fabbri [Blacksmiths--also code 57]; 31-Linaiuoli e Rigattieri [Linen drapers and used clothes dealers]; 32-Maestri di Pietro e Legname [Builders](few cases, see also code 54); 33-Vinattieri [Wine sellers]; 34-Albergatori [Innkeepers]; 35-Oliandoli e Pizzicagnoli [Oil and wax dealers and Sausage-and-cheese sellers=also code 47]; 36-Cuoiai e Galigai [Leather workers](see also code 78); 37-Correggiai [Belt makers]; 38-Corrazzai e Spadai=code 94 [Armorers; sword-makers=also code 94]; 39-Chiavaioli [Locksmiths]; 40-Legnaioli [Carpenters]; 41-Fornai [Bakers].
 He assigned the remaining codes to distinct occupations for which the guild affiliation was combined with others or was not always certain:
 42-mugnaio [Miller]; 43-tintore [Dyer]; 44-barbiere [Barber]; 45-scardassiere [Wool carder]; 47-pizzicagnolo, cacciaiuolo [Sausage-and-cheese seller]; 48-bottaio, barattolaio, barlattaio [Cooper]; 49-orafo, aurifex [Goldsmith]; 51-scodellaio, stovigliaio, fiaschiaio, orciolaio, bicchieraio [Dish makers]; 52-merciaio [Mercer]; 53-purgatore [Bleacher]; 54-muratore, lastraiolo, scarpellatore [Stone workers]; 55-bastiere, brigliaio, sellaio, speranaio, bastaio, gainaio [Saddlers]; 56-cartolaio, cartaio [Stationer]; 57-maniscalco [Blacksmith]; 58-farsettaio [Doublet maker]; 59-fornaciaio, stufaiolo [Kiln operator]; 60-reveditore [Wool cloth finisher]; 61-pettinatore, carditore, scegliatore di lana, apennichino [Wool carders]; 62-cimatore [Wool cloth shearer]; 63-borsaio [Purse maker]; 65-piannellaio [Slipper maker]; 66-pesatore, staderaio, bilanciaio [Weigher]; 67-sarto, ritagliatore [Tailor; cloth cutter]; 68-guarnaio [Cloak maker]; 70-prete (Priest); 73-cuoaio [Leather worker]; 74-cappellaio [Hatter]; 75-ottonaio, stagaio, salderaio [Brass or Tinsmiths]; 76-ferratore, ferravecchio [Iron worker]; 78-conciatore di pella, pelacane [Tanners]; 80-stamaiuolo, filatoiaio [Spinners]; 81-pezzaio [Leather cutter]; 84-lavandaio [Cloth washer]; 85-coltellaio, forbiciaio [Cutler, scissor maker]; 87-remendatore, ricamatore, refaiuolo [Sewers of wool cloth]; 89-cavaliere [Knight]; 91-tiratore [Wool cloth stretcher]; 92-materassaio, coltriciaio, pagliaiuolo [Mattress makers]; 94-spadaio [Sword maker]; 95-dipintore, miniatore [Painters]; 96-biadaiuolo [Grain or fodder dealer]; 97-cordatore, funaiuolo, saccaio [Rope and sack makers]; 99-giudice [Judge]; (Added: 17-pesciaiuolo [Fishmonger], 18-fondacaio [Warehouse keeper], 19-[Miscellaneous trades not covered above]).
ORIGINThe place of origin recorded for the individual (when reported).
RECKEYA unique ID number for each record.

RDRAW Codes for the Tre Maggiori and Guild Elections.

       

Code

 

Number

   

Ser 05

Ser 06

01

Eletto.

33150

23535

02

‘Devetum’ generico.

836

391

03

Dilaniato. (Rejected and name-slip destroyed--also 93).

162

112

04

Assenza lunga. (also 14, 24)

2263

1718

05

Minore.

19109

13214

06

Malato, impedito.

199

431

09

Morto.

13813

6110

12

Carcerato. (also 72)

13

4

13

Magnate, Miles.

22

1

14

Assenza corta. (also 04, 24)

68

1

15

Religioso (Monk or Friar).

46

2

16

‘Non ha tempo’ (=Minor? 05)

3

12

22

Chierico (Priest).

48

42

23

Ghibellino.

91

 

24

Assenza ‘semel, bis, ter’ (also 04, 14)

4

 

31

Nello specchio per errore, rimesso; ma anche: ‘extra-marsupium’.

7

4

32

Inabile.

23

86

33

Ammonito.

203

9

34

Assente ‘ob reipublicae causam’.

1

 

41

Non iuravit.

22

14

43

‘In specolo’.

8324

18817

51

Elettore dei Tre Maggiori, tratto dal Consiglio Maggiore.

2280

 

52

Già in ufficio: 16, 12, Podestà, Dieci. (also 82)

82

612

53

Non fa l’arte.

1

135

54

Elettore dei Tre Maggiori, tratto dal Consiglio Maggiore, ma assente.

999

 

63

Ribelle e bandito.

36

3

66

Cieco.

5

2

71

‘Grandi’ fatti ‘Popolani’.*

19

 

72

In confinabus. (also 12)

60

2

73

Cessante, barattiere.

32

13

81

‘Popolani’ fatti ‘Grandi’.*

20

 

82

Priorato. (also 52)

12

 

85

Habet bullettinum’. (?)

120

2

86

Allegavit privilegium’. (?)

7

1

93

Dilaniato generico. (Name-slip destroyed--also 03).

44

10

96

‘Ha rinunciato’

10

170

00, 99

Uncertain (but not seated in office).

41

229

 

*Lists taken by Herlihy from the Priorista Rastrelli that were not part of the electoral process.

   

 

 

 

 

 

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